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First Aid

: 4.6/5.0 (1668 )

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    First Aid

    Treatment is carried out by right clicking on the body in the health status window, or right clicking the health status text if injuries are present. Treatment requires materials, even basic ones such as Ripped Sheets and/or Whiskey. Injuries are indicated by bleeding and/or injured moodles. First Aid will not reduce or change the chance of zombification from a zombie scratch or bite.

    Occupations & Traits

    The Doctor and Nurse occupations provide a starting boost to the First Aid skill, making it more effective in treating injuries. The Doctor occupation starts the player off with +3 to the First Aid skill, while the Nurse occupation starts the player with +2 to the First Aid and +1 to the Lightfooted skills. There are also the First Aider and Former Scout traits, both giving +1 to the First Aid skill while the latter trait gives +1 to the Foraging skill. Both traits can be taken with either occupation, allowing for +5 First Aid with the Doctor occupation or +4 First Aid with the Nurse occupation.

    First Aid Flow

    There are four types of injuries, basic treatment for any injury is a clean and maintaining it, optionally but suggested to keep the chance of infection at bay with . Treatment is also painful most of the time, even as the player's First Aid skill increases in level.

    First Aid - WoWWiki

    First Aid is highly recommended to all classes as a way of reducing downtime between battles, by quickly restoring health after combat. Even classes with healing spells can benefit, since using a bandage after combat will conserve mana, saving the time otherwise spent drinking.

    Bandages, usable in or out of combat, also have a large role in groups and raids. Characters who are not tanking or healing can back away from the battle at hand and apply a bandage to themselves, to help save the healer's mana. If you have more bandages than you need, they can be sold for more than the raw material of the cloth.

    However, be warned that being hit (including damage over time spells) while applying a bandage will cancel its channeled heal. A remedy to this problem is to stun, fear, or find some other means to lose the aggro of that monster long enough to get some use out of the bandage. This can be useful in PvP, where a stun applied to the enemy in some cases stops your attack (removes you from "combat") so that the bandage can be applied more fully.

    Skill level guide Edit

    Burns First Aid

    First Aid for Burns

    A burn is an injury that results from heat, chemical agents, or radiation. It may vary in depth, size, and severity, causing injury to the cells in the affected area.

    Burns are caused most commonly by

    1. Carelessness with matches and in cigarette smoking

    2. Scalds from hot liquids

    3. Defective heating, cooking, and electrical equipment

    4. Use of open fires that produce flame burns, especially when flammable clothing is worn

    5. Unsafe practices in the home, in the use of flammable liquids for starting fires, for cleaning, and for scrubbing wax off floors

    6. Immersion in overheated bath waters.

    7. Use of chemicals, such as lye, strong acids, and strong detergents

    In addition to surface burns and the effects of heat on the blood and on body tissues other than the skin, the hazards of fire include the following:

    1. Inhaling very hot (superheated) air or irritating or poisonous gases, including carbon monoxide

    2. Asphyxia from insufficient oxygen in the air

    3. Falls and injures from collapsing walls in burning buildings.

    Burns are usually classified according to depth or degree of skin damage. Often the degree will differ in various parts of the same affected area.

    First-degree burns are those resulting from overexposure to the sun, light contact with hot objects, or scalding by hot water or steam. The usual signs are

    1. Redness or discoloration

    2. Mild swelling and pain

    3. Rapid healing

    NOTE. Severe sunburn should receive medical care as soon as possible.

    Second-degree burns are those resulting from a very deep sunburn, contact with hot liquids, and flash burns from gasoline, kerosene, and other products. Second-degree burns are usually more painful than deeper burns in which the nerve endings in the skin are destroyed.

    The usual are

    1. Greater depth than first-degree burns

    2. Red or mottled appearance

    3. Development of blisters

    4. Considerable swelling over a period of several days

    5. Wet appearance of the surface of the skin, due to the loss of plasma through the damaged layers of the skin

    Third-degree burns can be caused by a flame, ignited clothing, immersion in hot water, contact with hot objects, or electricity. Temperature and duration of contact are important factors in determining the extent of tissue destruction.

    The usual signs are

    1. Deep tissue destruction

    2. White or charred appearance (At first, the burn may resemble a second-degree burn.)

    3. Complete loss of all layers of the skin

    In addition to classification of burns according to depth or degree, burns are ordinarily described according to the extent of the total body surface involved.

    In general, an adult who has suffered burns of 15 percent of his body surface (a child, 10 percent), wherever located, requires hospitalization. Burns of the face are often associated with injury to the respiratory tract, and may obstruct breathing as swelling increases. Prompt medical attention is imperative.

    The objective of first aid burns is to relieve pain, prevent contamination, and treat for shock. Usually, medical treatment is not required.

    1. Apply cold water applications, or submerge the burned area in cold water.

    2. Apply a dry dressing if it necessary.

    1. Immerse the burned part in cold water (not ice water) until the pain subsides.

    2. Apply freshly ironed or laundered cloths that have been wrung out in ice water.

    3. Blot dry, gently.

    4. Apply dry, sterile gauze or clean cloth as a protective bandage.

    5. Do not break blisters or remove tissue.

    6. Do not use an antiseptic preparation, ointment, spray, or home remedy on a severe burn.

    7. If the arms or legs are affected, keep them elevated.

    1. Do not remove adhered particles of charred clothing.

    2. Cover burns with thick, sterile dressings or a freshly ironed or laundered sheet or other household linen.

    3. If the hands are involved, keep them above the level of the victims heart.

    4. Keep burned feet or legs elevated. (The victim should not be allowed to walk.)

    5. Have victims with face burns sit up or prop them up and keep them under continuous observation for breathing difficulty. If respiration problems develop, and open airway must be maintained.

    6. Do not immerse an extensive burned area or apply ice water over it, because cold may intensify the shock reaction. However, a cold pack may be applied to the face or to the hands or feet.

    7. Arrange transportation to the hospital as quickly as possible.

    8. If medical help or trained ambulance personnel will not reach the scene for an hour or more and the victim is conscious and not vomiting, give him a weak solution of salt and soda at home and en route: 1 level teaspoonful of salt and ? level teaspoonful of baking soda to each quart of water, neither hot nor cold. Allow the victim to sip slowly. Give about 4 ounces (a half glass) to an adult over a period of 15 minutes. Give about 2 ounces to a child from 1 to 12 years of age, and about 1 ounce to an infant under 1 year of age. Discontinue fluid if vomiting occurs.

    If medical help will not be available within an hour or more, fluids may be given if not otherwise contraindicated. (Do not give alcohol.)

    9. Do not apply ointment, commercial preparations, grease, or other home remedy. (Such substances may cause further complications and interfere with treatment by the physician.)

    For chemical burns of the skin, first aid steps are

    1. Wash away the chemical with large amounts of water, using a shower or hose, if available, as quickly as possible and for at least 5 minutes. Remove the victims clothing from the areas involved.

    2. If first aid directions for burns caused by specific chemicals are available, follow these directions after the initial flushing with water.

    3. Apply a dressing bandage and get medical aid.

    First aid for acid burns of the eye should begin as quickly as possible by thoroughly washing the face, eyelids, and eye for at least 5 minutes. If the victim is lying down, turn his head to the side, hold the eyelids open, and pour water from the inner corner of the eye outward. Make sure the chemical does not wash into the other eye.

    a. If a weak soda solution (1 teaspoonful of baking soda added to 1 quart of water) can be made quickly, use the solution after first washing the eye with tap water.

    b. Cover the eye with a dry, clean, protective dressing (do not use cotton) and bandage in place.

    c. Caution the victim against rubbing his eye.

    d. Get medical help immediately (preferably, an eye specialist).

    Alkali burns of the eye can be caused by drain cleaner, strong laundry and dishwater detergents, or other cleaning solutions are progressive injuries. An eye that first appears to have only slight surface injuries may develop deep inflammation and tissue destruction, and the sight may be lost.

    1. Flood the eye thoroughly with water for 15 minutes.

    2. If the victim is lying down, turn his head to the side. Hold the lids open and pour the water from the inner corner outward.

    3. Remove any loose particles of dry chemicals floating on the eye, by lifting them off gently with a sterile gauze or a clean handkerchief.

    4. Do not irrigate with soda solution.

    5. Immobilize the eye by covering it with a dry pad or protective dressing.

    6. Seek immediate medical aid.

    Injuries to the eyes from irritating gases are common, and lung damage also may result if sufficient quantity is involved. Many drugs and chemicals are used in spray from. Tear gas in concentrated from may cause blindness and should be handled carefully.

    First aid consists or irrigation of the eyes with large quantities of water.

    The most effective sunburn prevention lies in limiting the length of initial exposures at the beginning of warm weather each year, especially for individuals sensitive to the sun. For swimming and sunbathing, the first exposure should not be longer than 15 minutes, with gradual increases of from 5 to 10 minutes. On beaches and while boating or fishing during the summer, however, both children and adults should avoid long exposures from midmorning until midafternoon. Sunburn may develop following exposure even on a cloudy day. Persons engaged in outdoor work or sports should wear protective clothing during this critical period, and those with light complexions should cover their hands and faces with suitable ultraviolet-light-screening preparations.

    Commercial preparations for sunburn protection vary in their effects. Most preparations contain oils to keep the skin from drying on exposure to heat, wind, and to water. Some have hardly any protective effects; others are highly effective but expensive. Many of these preparations may cause allergic reactions in individual cases. A small sample should be tested on the skin before liberal amounts are used. Preparations that protect against ultraviolet rays should be protected, either by shade or by sunglasses, against irritation from overexposure to the glare of sun, sand, water, ice, and snow.

    VI. Prevention of Heat Emergencies

    The following information relates to the more common conditions and activities that produce heat emergencies. A responsible attitude toward acquiring additional preventive information, particularly in regard to fires and burns, should lead the reader to resources beyond the basic discussion contained herein.

    Fires, burns, and other emergencies produced by fire are the third leading cause of accidental death. About 20 percent of the fatalities are children. The home environment is particularly dangerous. Some four out of five deaths due to fire occur in the home. In addition, numerous persons are affected by nonfatal burn injuries each year. Prevention of burns is, essentially, a matter of preventing fires, as well as protection of self and others from sources of extreme heat other than fire.

    Home fires and burn injuries are often the result of children playing with matches and careless handling of matches by adults. When the hazards of dangerous play are not fully understood by children, protective measures similar to those controlling accessibility to dangerous poisons should be followed. Careless handling or disposal of matches and lighted cigarettes is a primary factor in the cause of about 25 percent of all fires of known origin.

    Smoking while in bed is one of the frequent causes of fire in homes and places of public accommodation. In addition to the danger of burns, a fire in bedding also releases toxic gases that can quietly suffocate sleeping persons in the room or in other parts of the building. Considering the number of fire fatalities where smoking in bed has been identified as the primary causative factor, smokers should see that the practice seems most unwise.

    2. Cooking and heating equipment

    Cooking and heating equipment is a common source of fires and burns. It is very important that equipment be kept clean and in good repair. A qualified person should inspect and clean heating systems and chimneys annually. If repairs are needed, an expert should be called upon.

    Flammable liquids create a special handling and storage problem. If a stove uses fuel oil, store surplus quantities outdoors. Do not use highly flammable liquids for household purposes or for lighting a charcoal grill or other fire. Store flammable liquids in safety containers that seal off explosive vapors from the air. Any flame or spark can produce an explosivelike flash fire wherever a concentration of volatile fumes exists. Similar precautions are necessary where gas is used as a fuel. If a pilot light or gas burner blows out, ventilate thoroughly, and then carefully follow the manufacturers directions in relighting the unit.

    Fire and burn prevention also requires that good housekeeping and safe personal practices be fallowed in the use of cooking and heating equipment. Cooking surfaces should be kept clean from grease. Turn pot handles so that they do not stick out over the edge of a stove; otherwise, children might pull scalding liquids down upon themselves. Keep portable space heaters out of room traffic lanes and turn them off before going to bed. Make sure that curtains cannot blow across cooking surface and that loose clothing is not worn around cooking burners. Remember, too, that children need special protection from these and other potentially hazardous fire situations.

    Fires of electrical origin are usually the result of overloaded or defective wiring, and worn-out or damaged power tools, appliances, fractional horsepower motors, fixture outlets, and cords.

    Many older homes are not electrically wired to accommodate the number of appliances and amount of electrical equipment that are in common use today. In such homes, it is most important that fuses are the right size so that circuits are protected from becoming overloaded. A fuse or a circuit breaker, which acts as a safety valve for overloaded circuits, slows or cuts off the current so that wiring will not overheat and create a fire.

    Fire and burn protective also requires worn-out or damaged tools, appliances, cords, and other electrical items to be either discarded or repaired. Repairs should be made by qualified repairmen. Repairs are particularly important where television sets are concerned. Unless a television set is designed specifically for installation in a tightly enclosed space, do not install it where required ventilation will be obstructed; a fire hazard can be created if adequate ventilation is not provided.

    An absence of grounded circuits and electrical appliances or equipment without grounded wiring poses the ever-present danger that a current of electricity can reach and pass through the body. A three-prolonged plug on an appliance cord or piece of electrical equipment implies that the item is wired to afford protection against electric currents reaching the body provided that the item is plugged into a grounded circuit. Whenever a manufacturer recommends that electrical appliances or equipment should be grounded, follow the advice. If both the circuit and the appliance are improperly wired and plugged for grounding, have a competent electrician inspect the circuit wiring, circuit load, and wall receptacle, and request him to ground the piece of equipment or appliance.

    The usual source of radiation burns is an overexposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun during warm weather seasons. Light-complexioned persons are particularly susceptible to burning by the suns rays. Sunburn can be prevented by controlling the amount of exposure to ultraviolet rays until a suntan has developed, and by avoiding excessive exposure, particularly during the midmorning to midafternoon period, when the amount of ultraviolet radiation is greatest.

    The first few exposures at the beginning of an outdoor season should be limited to periods of no more than 15 minutes. Later exposures should be regulated so that a protective suntan can develop gradually. Commercial skin preparations that are made specially to screen out ultraviolet rays may also be helpful. Some commercial preparations have little protective effects against ultraviolet rays, and any one of them may cause an allergic reaction in individual cases. A person may wish to check with his own physician for advice in selecting a sunburn prevention preparation. For best results when using a particular preparation, follow directions on the container label.

    Persons who spend a great deal of time in the hot sun should avoid excessive exposure by wearing protective clothing and using a sunburn preventive preparation on the hands, neck, and face. Remember, too, that cloudy weather does not ensure protection against ultraviolet ray exposure.

    The eyes also need protection from long exposure to sunlight and glare. While a cap visor may shield the eyes from sun, sand, water, ice, and snow glare, protection against sunlight and water or surface reflection is best obtained by wearing sunglasses. Seek professional advice about the selection of effective sunglasses.

    Prevention of chemical burns would be almost universally accomplished if people would heed the warnings and carefully read and follow instructions printed on the original containers of products. Eye tissue is particularly vulnerable. Special precautions are necessary in the handling and use of sprays, gases, and the many household and garden products containing caustic chemical compounds that can be splashed or rubbed into the eyes.

    Make a normal practice of carefully reading the label of every spray can, as well as any package containing laundry or dishwashing products, insecticides, pesticides, hair sprays, deodorants, garden and soil product, antiseptics, or medicines. Since these chemicals are also dangerous if swallowed or inhaled, the same preventive measures regarding security and storage as suggested in the chapter on accidental poisoning should be followed.

    D. Specific fire or burn prevention

    1. Install fire extinguishers in danger spots.

    2. Keep a garden hose near a faucet for use in case of fire.

    3. Install adequate insulation at all heating surfaces.

    4. Repair or replace defective or inadequate electrical wiring.

    5. Perform the required maintenance on heating systems.

    6. Dispose of trash immediately.

    7. Use only nonflammable cleaning fluids.

    8. Hang clothes well away from stoves or fireplaces.

    9. Place curtains so that they will not blow into flames from any stove, candle, etc.

    10. Store flammable materials in a safe place.

    11. Do not overload electrical circuits.

    12. Surprise children playing near an open fire.

    13. Store matches in a metal container and out of reach of children.

    14. Turn pot and pan handles away from the edge of the stove.

    15. Do not leave tubs of hot water where children can fall into them.

    16. Do not smoke in bed.

    17. Do not smoke if you are sleepy.

    18. Provide adequate ashtrays throughout the house.

    19. Install home fire detectors.

    Every family should have a fire escape plan that includes at least two possible ways to get outdoors from every room in the house. Emergency exit plans should be discussed and practiced until each family member knows exactly what to do. The two most important things to remember in case of fire are, first, to get everybody out of the house, and then to call the fire department.

    Escape from fire is more likely to be accomplished safety if certain basic facts are understood. For example, since heated air and carbon monoxide gas tend to rise, persons should stay close to the floor. Any part of the body covered by a thick cloth, particularly if the cloth is wet, will be protected for a time from heat, but not from fumes. It is especially important to protect the hands, face, and respiratory passages. There is actually no satisfactory protection against carbon monoxide, but the lowest concentration of the gas will be found in air near the floor. If clothing catches fire, do not run; roll on the floor or ground. Smother the flaming clothes of another person with a coat or blanket.

    When attempting escape, place the palm of your hand against any inside door before opening it. If the door feels hot, either leave by another exit or wait at a window for rescue. Open the window slightly, from the bottom, so that fresh breathing air can be obtained. Hang clothing or a bedsheet from the window to signal rescuers. If a door feels cool to the touch, open it slightly, staying low and behind the door. The next room may contain superheated air, under pressure, that could explode as it expands. Pass your hand across the door opening, and if the air feels cool, it should be safe to enter.

    Close doors behind you upon leaving rooms and the house. Fire travels faster when doors and windows are open. After everybody is safely out of the house, call the fire department, giving your name and the address where the fire is located.

    The extent to which various body systems can adapt to a hot climate or hot working conditions, exposures to alternately high and low temperature extremes, and conditions of high and low humidity is apparently related to an individuals ability to avoid heat illnesses. This systematic adaptation ability varies among individuals.

    Drinking adequate amounts of water and increasing the intake of salt are two preventive measures that may help to avoid heat illness, particularly in the case of heat exhaustion and heat cramps. Restriction of activity, good ventilation and movement of air by fans and air conditioning, moderate eating habits, and the wearing of loose and light-colored clothing in hot, sunny weather can help lower the incidence of heat reactions.

    Heat stroke is an immediate, life-threatening problem. The cooling of body surfaces, such as the exposed face, neck, and arms, by periodic sponging with cool water is sometimes helpful in preventing the onset of heat stroke. Exposure and activity should be limited where extremely hot climatic and working conditions permit, particularly in the case of young children, elderly persons, and other people known to be susceptible to the effects of extreme heat.

    Standard First Aid and Personal Safety by American National Red Cross

    First aid - Mayo Clinic

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    First Aid - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

    This book is intended for intermediate readers.

    This book covers in depth all topics required for a standard first aid course, and also includes a section on advanced topics. The basics covered include:

    • Primary assessment and CPR
    • Legal aspects of first aid, including negligence and consent
    • Circulatory emergencies, such as bleeding, heart attack and stroke
    • Respiratory emergencies, such as asthma and anaphylactic shock
    • Internal injuries, such as broken bones, chest injuries, and internal bleeding
    • Burns, seizures and other medical conditions

    In the chapter on advanced topics. you'll find information about oxygen administration and airway management; AED operation and wilderness techniques; additional assessments and triage.

    The intended audience is taking a first aid course from a certified instructor, and can read at a high school level. Please be advised that there are some images of the injuries and conditions discussed.

    This is a wiki. so you can edit this book ; and if you find a mistake, then please be bold and fix it. If you want to leave comments, please do so on the talk page for that module. If you want to help out even more, take a look through What needs to be done? for tasks that still need to be done, or start with whatever tasks you stumble across.

    Table of Contents Edit

    What is First Aid? (with pictures) - mobile wiseGEEK

    wiseGEEK: What is First Aid?

    First aid refers to the immediate, direct treatment of an injured person. Anyone with a basic understanding of medical treatment can administer aid at the first signs of trouble. Simple procedures may include stopping blood loss by applying pressure, dressing a wound, treating a burn with ointment, or setting a bone with a splint. Some types, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR ), require an individual to receive specialized training from an accredited program.

    Many minor injuries can be handled with simple, immediate medical attention. A small cut, burn, or blister, for instance, can be attended to by thoroughly cleaning the injury, applying a topical antibiotic cream, and covering it with a breathable bandage or wrap. Treating bruises, muscle strains, swelling, and animal bites usually involves icing and compressing the injuries, as well as taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory or pain medication.

    Some injuries require medical services beyond the average person's abilities. An person who is choking or drowning, for example, may depend on a trained professional to administer the Heimlich maneuver or CPR. Strokes, seizures, concussions. and broken bones create special challenges for immediate medical care providers, as they are usually required to keep victims calm and conscious while temporarily relieving symptoms.

    Individuals in most countries can get first aid training through courses offered by community health organizations and hospitals. Training may last anywhere from a few hours to three or four days, depending on the scope of a program. Individuals in training usually learn how to recognize signs of choking, concussions, and blood loss, and practice the means of treating such ailments. People who learn how to perform CPR and other lifesaving tasks are often awarded with special certifications.

    Most supermarkets, retail pharmacies, online retailers, and specialty outdoors stores sell first aid kits, which prepare individuals for common injuries. Kits may include bandages, dressings, antiseptic sprays, painkillers, gloves, scissors, and sterile syringes among other items. Many people choose to keep these kits in their homes and cars to be prepared for emergencies. Hikers, sportsmen, and adventure seekers often carry emergency kits in case an accident occurs in an isolated area.

    Successful first aid procedures can provide relief from pain and uncomfortable symptoms and prevent further damage from infection. When treatment is administered quickly, many injuries are able to heal completely without a visit to a medical professional or emergency room. Urgent care can even mean the difference between life and death in situations where professional help is unavailable or slow to arrive.

    Article Discussion

    9) @Ivan83 I would definitely keep an antihistamine in my first aid kit. Popping a few of these after a bee sting could prevent a bad allergic reaction. Even if you only get mild swelling after an insect sting, an antihistamine can reduce the severity of it.

    I would also include a small bottle of alcohol to clean wounds with. It burns like crazy, but it can prevent an infection later. Antibiotic cream is a good topical ointment to apply after you clean the wound.

    First aid: Wikis (The Full Wiki)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    First Aid symbol

    First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a lay person to a sick or injured casualty until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

    The instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller. formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries. [ 1 ] The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the High Middle Ages. and organized societies were not seen again until in 1859 Henry Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino. including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross. with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field". [ 1 ] This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organization joined them, with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of 'first treatment' and 'national aid' [ 1 ] in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. First aid training began to spread through the empire through organisations such as St John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways. [ 2 ]

    Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars, such as in the case of the American Civil War. which prompted Clara Barton to organize the American Red Cross. [ 3 ] Today, there are several groups that promote first aid, such as the military and the Scouting movement. New techniques and equipment have helped make todays first aid simple and effective.

    The key aims of first aid can be summarised in three key points: [ 4 ]

    • Preserve life - the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives
    • Prevent further harm - also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening. this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.
    • Promote recovery - first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound.

    First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, and the treatment phases.

    Key skills


    Preserving life

    In order to stay alive, all persons need to have an open airway - a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down in to the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway, as the part of the brain which automatically controls breathing in normal situations may not be functioning.

    If the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position. with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents.

    The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx, commonly called choking. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of back slaps and abdominal thrusts.

    Once the airway has been opened, the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. If there is no breathing, or the patient is not breathing normally, such as agonal breathing. the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body.

    Promoting recovery

    The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts. grazes or bone fracture. They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut), or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone, until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance ) arrives.

    Much of first aid is common sense. Basic principles, such as knowing to use an adhesive bandage or applying direct pressure on a bleed, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal illnesses and injuries, such as those that require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); these procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. As with any training, it is more useful if it occurs before an actual emergency. and in many countries, emergency ambulance dispatchers may give basic first aid instructions over the phone while the ambulance is on the way.

    Training is generally provided by attending a course, typically leading to certification. Due to regular changes in procedures and protocols, based on updated clinical knowledge, and to maintain skill, attendance at regular refresher courses or re-certification is often necessary. First aid training is often available through community organizations such as the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance. or through commercial providers, who will train people for a fee. This commercial training is most common for training of employees to perform first aid in their workplace. Many community organizations also provide a commercial service, which complements their community programmes.

    In Australia. Nationally recognized First Aid certificates may only be issued by Registered training organisations who are accredited on the National Training Information System (NTIS). Most First Aid certificates are issued at one of 3 levels:

    • Level 1 (or Basic First Aid, or Basic Life Support): is a 1-day course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR. bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies.
    • Level 2 (Senior First Aid) is a 2 day course that covers all the aspects of training in Level 1, as well as specialized training for treatment of burns, bites, stings, electric shock and poisons. Level 2 reaccreditation is a 1 day course which must be taken every 3 years, but CPR reaccrediation may be required more frequently (typically yearly).
    • Level 3 (Occupational First Aid) is a 4-day course covering advanced first aid, use of oxygen and automated external defibrillators and documentation. It is suitable for workplace First Aiders and those who manage First Aid facilities.

    Other courses outside these levels are commonly taught, including CPR-only courses, Advanced Resuscitation, Remote Area or Wilderness First Aid, Administering Medications (such as salbutamol or the Epi-Pen ) and specialized courses for parents, school teachers, community first responders or hazardous workplace first aiders. CPR Re-accredidation courses are sometimes required yearly, regardless of the length of the overall certification.

    In Canada. first aid certificates are awarded by one of several national organizations including the Red Cross. the Lifesaving Society and St. John Ambulance. Or they can also be issued by sub-national organizations. The terms "Emergency First Aid" and "Standard First Aid" are generic and based on a Health Canada (a federal department of the Government of Canada) review and approval of a training organization's curriculum / syllabus (training content), standards and other factors. Workplace safety regulations and standards for first aid vary by province depending on occupation. However, as some occupations are governed by federal, not provincial, workplace safety regulations, such as the transportation industry (marine, aviation, rail), trainees need to confirm with their employer as to exactly what specific training and certification standards comply with the applicable regulatory agencies, federal or provincial.

    • Emergency First Aid: is an 8-hour course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR. bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies.
    • Standard First Aid: is a 16-hour course that covers the same material as Emergency First Aid and will include training for some, but not all, of the following: breaks; burns; poisons, bites and stings; eye injuries; head and neck injuries; chest injuries; wound care; emergency child birth; and multiple casualty management.
    • Medical First Responder (BTLS - known by different names among different Canadian organizations): is a 40 hour course. It requires Standard First Aid certification as a prerequisite. Candidates are trained in the use of oxygen, automated external defibrillators. airway management, and the use of additional emergency equipment.

    CPR certification in Canada is broken into several levels. Depending on the level, the lay person will learn the basic one-person CPR and choking procedures for adults, and perhaps children, and infants. Higher-level designations also require two-person CPR to be learned. Depending on provincial laws, trainees may also learn the basics of automated external defibrillation (AED). [ 5 ]

    • Level A is the lowest level of CPR training. Trainees learn how to perform the standard one-rescuer CPR and choking procedures on adults.
    • Level B requires the same procedures as Level A, but trainees learn to perform these maneuvers on children and infants in addition to adults.
    • Level C requires the same maneuvers as Level B, and trainees are also taught how to perform two-person CPR.
    • Level HCP (Health Care Professional) was introduced in Canada in response to new guidelines set by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. [ 6 ] In addition to the techniques taught in Level C, artificial resuscitation. AED use (to certification standards), and bag-valve-mask use is taught. Anyone with CPR-HCP certification is considered AED certified.

    In Ireland, the workplace qualification is the Occupational First Aid Certificate. The Health and Safety Authority issue the standards for first aid at work and hold a register of qualified instructors, examiners and organisations that can provide the course. A FETAC Level 5 certificate is awarded after passing a three day course and is valid for two years from date of issue. Occupational First Aiders are more qualified than Cardiac First Responders (Cardiac First Response and training on the AED is now part of the OFA course) but less qualified than Emergency First Responders but strangely Occupational First Aid is the only one of the three not certified by PHECC. Organisations offering the certificate include, Ireland's largest first aid organisation, the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps. the St John Ambulance Brigade. and the Irish Red Cross. The Irish Red Cross also provides a Practical First Aid Course aimed at the general public dealing primarily with family members getting injured. Many other (purely commercially run) organisations offer training.

    The Netherlands

    In the The Netherlands first aid training and certification for lay persons are provided mostly by specialised (commercial) first aid training companies or voluteers of the "Dutch Red Cross" and the foundations "Het Oranje Kruis" and "LPEV". They offer a variety of levels in first aid training, from basic CPR to First Responder. Medical first aid must be provided by certified ambulance crews, physicians and in hospitals.

    United Kingdom

    In the U.K.. there are two main types of first aid courses offered. An Emergency First Aid at Work course typically lasts one day, and covers the basics, focusing on critical interventions for conditions such as cardiac arrest and severe bleeding, and is usually not formally assessed. A First Aid at Work course is usually a three-day course (two days for a re-qualification) that covers the full spectrum of first aid, and is formally assessed by recognized Health and Safety Executive assessors. Certificates for the First Aid at Work course are issued by the training organization and are valid for a period of three years from the date the delegate passes the course. Other courses offered by training organizations such as St. John Ambulance. St Andrews First Aid or the British Red Cross include Baby & Child Courses, manual handling, people moving, and courses geared towards more advanced life support, such as defibrillation and administration of medical gases such as oxygen & entonox .

    The British Forces use First Aid ranging from levels 1-3, to assist the medical staff on their Ship, Squadron, Section, Base or any other purpose required. They are trained in both Military and Civilian First Aid and often utilise their knowledge in aid stricken regions around the world. First Aid is vital on board HM Ships because of the number of people in a small area and the space given to perform their task, it is also vital for the Army and Royal Marines to know basic first aid to help the survival rate of the soldiers when in combat.

    United States

    In the United States. there is no universal schedule of First Aid levels that are applicable to all agencies that provide first aid training. Training is provided typically through the American Red Cross, but may also be completed by local fire departments and the American Heart Association (AHA) in terms of CPR. The American Red Cross, however, offers the following courses [ 7 ] :

    • CPR
      • CPR-Adult (CPR-A)
      • CPR-Child and Infant (CPR-CI)
      • CPR-Adult and Child (CPR-AC)
      • CPR-Adult, Child, and Infant (CPR-ACI)
    • CPR/Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
      • CPR/AED-Adult (CPR/AED-A)
      • CPR/AED-Adult and Child (CPR/AED-AC)
    • First Aid
      • Standard First Aid (SFA)
      • Standard First Aid plus any of the above CPR or CPR/AED courses
    • Specialty
      • Babysitter's Training
      • Lifeguarding (Lifeguard training)
      • Dog, Cat, and Dog/Cat First Aid
      • Professional Rescuer Training (CPR, First Aid, and AED to meet Lifeguard, EMT, and Nursing regulations)
      • Bloodborne Pathogens Training
      • Wilderness Training
      • First Responder in the Workplace training (CPR/AED/First Aid)
      • Instructor Certification

    Red Cross training programs may vary by Chapter and season. Layman First Responders in the United States are subject to [Good Samaritan law] protections as long as their treatment does not extend beyond training or certification. First Aid training in the United States is limited to basic life support functions needed to sustain life, and training instills the importance of activating the Emergency Medical System before beginning assistance (through the Three C's: Check, Call, Care). Training classes range from a few hours for a specific course, or several days for combination, specialty, and instructor courses. Red Cross volunteers are required to be Standard First Aid plus CPR/ACI certified (AED is encouraged but not required as of 2009), as well as passing the FEMA NIMS Introductory certification.

    Specific disciplines

    There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.

    • Aquatic/Marine first aid - Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards. professional mariners or in diver rescue. and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue and/or delayed MedEvac .
    • Battlefield first aid - This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict.
    • Hyperbaric first aid - Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends .
    • Oxygen first aid - Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia .
    • Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain, weather, and available persons or equipment. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days.
    • Hydrofluoric Acid first aid - taught to first aiders in the chemical industry where hydrofluoric acid may be used. Instructs the first aider how to initially treat (with calcium gluconate ) any skin that has been splashed with the acid.

    Although commonly associated with first aid, the symbol of a red cross is an official protective symbol of the Red Cross. According to the Geneva Conventions and other international laws, the use of this and similar symbols is reserved for official agencies of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent. and as a protective emblem for medical personnel and facilities in combat situations. Use by any other person or organization is illegal, and may lead to prosecution.

    The internationally accepted symbol for first aid is the white cross on a green background shown at the start of the page.

    Some organizations may make use of the Star of Life. although this is usually reserved for use by ambulance services, or may use symbols such as the Maltese Cross. like the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps and St John Ambulance. Other symbols may also be used.